Forest Type Map - 2006


Brief Description

The Forest Type Map 2006 map is a 25m spatial resolution raster  Pan-European Forest / Non Forest Map with target year 2006 derived from LISS  III, SPOT4/5 and MODIS satellite  imagery and Corine Land Cover 2006 data. It includes the classes: Broadleaved Forest, Coniferous Forest, Non-forest, Water, Clouds/snow and no data. The map was produced exploiting an automatic classification technique based on a Neural Network clustrering algorithm. The map covers the EU27 countries plus BA, HR, MK, LI, RS, ME, AL, NO, CH, TR, IS


Input Data

Satellite Imagery 



MODIS 250 Composites (MOD13Q)

Spatial Resolution

Original resolution resampled to 25m (proposed INSPIRE Grid Standard)

Geometric Accuracy

RMS(95%) error less than 25m

Geometric Reference System

ETRS89 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area (ETRS-LAEA)

Acquisition Date


Ancillary Data 

Land Cover Data CORINE Land Cover 2006 (seamless Vector layer converted to 25m raster)

 Input Data used for the production of the Forest Cover 2006 Map


The Forest Type Map 2006 was produced exploiting both single-time high-resolution data (LISS III and SPOT images) and multitemporal coarse spatial resolution data (MODIS composite images), with the aim to be able to distinguish between Broadleaved and Coniferous forested areas. Since the MODIS data had a spatial resolution ten times coarser than that of the LISS and SPOT imagery, a data fusion method was  integrated in a two step classification approach (Kempeneers et al., 2011). In step one, the classifier created a forest map, classifying forest and non-forest only (See here for details). In step two, a new classifier assigned the Forest class pixels either to the Broadleaved Forests ore Coniferous Forests classes, excluding the already identified non-forested pixels from the classification process. The multi-temporal data at medium spatial resolution were introduced only in step two. For additional details, see the reported references.


A picture of f the final Forest Type 2006 Map is shown below. The map is still under final development, but can be downloaded from our page as a 25 m resolution raster image.

The Forest Type 2006 final Map


Map Characteristics

The forest class of the Forest Type 2006 map should be considered as a forest cover class rather than a forest use class. The areas cloassified as forest are therefore the ones occupied by forest and woodlands with a vegetation pattern composed of native or exotic coniferous and/or broad-leaved trees, at the moment of the satellite images acquisition.

The Broadleaved Forest class includes therefore:

  • Broad-leaved forests with more than 30% tree cover
  • Broad-leaved tree plantations (e.g., Poplar, Eucalyptus)
  • Evergreen broad-leaved woodlands composed of schlerophyllus trees (e.g., Quercus Ilex, Quercus Suber, Quercus Rotundifolia)
  • Arborescent mattoral with schlerophyllus species
  • Olive-carob forests
  • Palm groves woodlands, tamarix woodlands, holly woodlands
  • Broad-leaved wooded dunes
  • Sub-arctic broad-leaved forests not reaching 5m in height
  • Transitional woodland areas

The Coniferous Forest class includes :

  • Coniferous forests with more than 30% tree cover
  • Arborescent mattoral with dominating juniperous oxycedrous/phoenica
  • Christmas trees plantations
  • Coniferous wooded dunes
  • Sub-arctic coniferous forests not reaching 5m in height

The following land use categories are not classified as forests in the Forest Type 2000 map:

  • Forest roads
  • Forest nurseries and regeneration area (with canopy closure less than 30%)
  • Burnt areas
  • Woodlands with trees smaller than 5 m height
  • Temporarily unstocked areas (i.e., clear cuts).

Furthermore, due to the similarity of spectral signatures, the following land use classes are difficult to separate and may in certain cases also be classified as forest, as a function of tree density and background reflectance:

  •     Wooded parks
  •     Parts of olive groves
  •     Fruit tree plantations (e.g. orchards of apple trees)
  •     Agro-forestry areas
  •     Transitional woodlands



Kempeneers, P., Sedano, F., Seebach, L., Strobl, P., San-Miguel-Ayanz, J. (2011) Data Fusion of Different Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing Images Applied to Forest-Type Mapping. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 49 (12), pp. 4977-4986


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